My results are summarized on the next graph. Again, I filled sterile test tubes with 10 ml of spring water each and added a blackworm to each test tube. Along with the blackworms themselves, a small amount of their aquarium water also went into the test tubes. To equalize this, I added spring water until each test tube had a total water volume of 15 ml. Then, I added silver nanoparticles—ranging from 1 drop to 4 ml—to each test tube except one, which was my negative control. I carefully inverted each tube so that the nanoparticles would be equally dispersed in the water.
Every 15 minutes, I checked the test tubes to see if the blackworms were still alive.
My third in vitro toxicity test tested the effect of silver nanoparticles on ghost shrimp. To do this I began by filling 50 ml-capacity test tubes with 30 ml of spring water. Then I added a ghost shrimp to each test tube, followed by various amounts of silver nanoparticles. In another test tube I had only spring water and a ghost shrimp, making this test tube my negative control. I inverted each test tube to ensure that the silver nanoparticles were dispersed evenly throughout the water. Every 15 minutes, I observed each ghost shrimp and determined if it was living or dead.
My final in vitro toxicity test used damselfly nymphs.
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Damselfly nymphs are known to be hardier than some other aquatic invertebrates and able to tolerate "fair" water quality which is worse than "good" but better than "poor". To do this, I began by filling 50 ml-capacity test tubes with 30 ml of spring water.
Clean Safe Drinking Water Essay
Then I added a damselfly nymph to each test tube, followed by various amounts of silver nanoparticles. In another test tube I had only spring water and a damselfly nymph, making this test tube my negative control. Every 15 minutes, I observed each damselfly nymph and determined if it was living or dead. However, the damselfly nymphs were, in fact, hardier than my other test organisms: they did not begin dying until 36 hours after their exposure to the silver nanoparticles.
By the end of four weeks, though, all of the damselfly nymphs exposed to silver nanoparticles were dead; the control damselfly nymph remained alive. To do this, I fed ghost shrimp, which are scavengers, either live California blackworms control or California blackworms that had died from exposure to silver nanoparticles. I filled 10 new glass bowls with ml of spring water and placed one ghost shrimp in each bowl.
Then I waited four days so the ghost shrimp could work up an appetite. Four days later, I placed two California blackworms in each of four sterile test tubes. I added 1 ml of silver nanoparticles to each test tube and inverted it. Once all the worms had died, I transferred the worms, by pipette, to a cup of spring water, to ensure that the silver nanoparticles from the test tubes would not accidentally enter the shrimp water during feeding. Then I carefully pipetted one dead worm from the spring water into each eight of the 10 glass bowls.
I pipetted one living blackworm, which had also been transferred to spring water as an intermediary step, to each of the other two glass bowls that served as my control. Within 10 minutes, both the control shrimp and the test shrimp had ingested the blackworms. Every four or five days, I emptied the bowls and added ml of fresh spring water to prevent the ghost shrimps' water from becoming too fouled. The first feeding was on January 8, As the graph below indicates, most of the ghost shrimp remained healthy for the first month of the experiment.
Just after four weeks, however, the test shrimp began to die.
Seven of the eight test shrimp died within a one-week period, beginning on Day 30, and all were dead within about five weeks of beginning to ingest the California blackworms killed by silver nanoparticles. After purchasing three new 2. Then, using a scale, I weighed out three pounds of Estes Natural Aqua Gravel, rinsed it thoroughly, spread it out evenly along the bottom of the aquarium, and repeated this procedure with the other two aquariums.
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The next day, I added four liters of spring water to each aquarium. I also set up an air pump with a three-way jack, attached to airstones, to aerate the aquariums and installed a inch fluorescent aquarium lamp that spread light evenly across the three aquariums. I set a timer on the light so that the tanks would receive the same amount of light each day, originally 15 hours per day, to stimulate plant and algae growth.
I decided to add the ecosystem's plants and animals slowly so the nitrogen cycle would have a chance to establish itself. First, I planted 1. The next day, I added 1. Three days later, I added four ghost shrimp to each aquarium. Two days later, I added 4. The following day, I added two freshwater clams Corbiculidae family to each tank. Now my simulated ecosystems were ready. I had two types of submerged aquatic vegetation SAVs , one rooted and one free-floating; two types of mollusks, one a grazer and one a filter feeder; and one scavenging crustacean. Four days later, I added the silver nanoparticles to the tanks.
Many young children like being around and in water, but proper safety measures should be taken, without which water can be dangerous for young children. One of the leading causes of death among children 1 one to 4 four years of age is drowning. According to Australian National Drowning report of , 35 infants and toddlers lost their lives through drowning in the financial year ending 30 June Most often at home, babies and toddlers drown in swimming pools. Drowning can also happen in other standing water around the home like bathtubs, buckets and pails, especially 5-gallon buckets and diaper pails, ice chests with melted ice, toilets, hot tubs, spas ,and whirlpools, irrigation ditches, post holes, and wells, fish ponds and fountains among others.
Drowning to young children is so easy as they can drown in as little as 4 cm 1. While drowning can take only a second, it is almost always silent. For this reason therefore, adults must always watch young children when in or near water. Young children need constant supervision when near water, whether the water is in a bathtub, a wading pool, an ornamental fish pond, a swimming pool, a spa, the beach or a lake. Several water and pool safety tips have been discussed below:. One may ask the question whether swimming lessons prevent drowning among children.
It is a good idea to learn how to swim and children older than 4 years should learn how to swim. However, according to researchers, there is no research to show that swimming lessons for children young than 4 years old can prevent drowning. This is because children are not old enough at this age to learn how to swim on their own. There are water survival skills that would help one in an emergency which are too hard for young children to react with.
However the exact age when young children are ready to learn how to swim, there is not a lot of research about it, but research has shown that children do not have the skills to swim on their own until maybe at the age of 4 years old and above even if their swimming lessons start at a younger age. It should be however noted that one should not assume that a child who knows how to swim is not at risk for drowning. No matter what their swimming skill levels, it is important to supervise young children while they are in the water. World Health Organization, Whenever a child is near water, invest in proper-fitting, coast guard-approved flotation devices life vests and use them.
Check the recommendations for the weight and size on the label, then to make sure that it fits snugly, have your child try it on. Arm devices such as water wings and inflatable vests are not effective protection against drowning. Water safety precautions start in the home, for example the bathroom is full of dangers for young children.
A young child should never be left unattended in the bathroom especially while bathing even if the child appears to be well propped in a safety tub or bath ring. All hair dryers and other electrical appliances should be kept away to avoid the risk of electrocution to children.
Hot water can also be dangerous, for the children who are young than 5 years in particular. Unlike older children and adults, young children have thinner skin, meaning that they burn more easily. To reduce the risk of scalding you can turn the water heater thermostat in your home down to 49 degree Celsius and by always testing the water with your wrist or elbow before placing your child in the bath.
Child safety is not only to be found at home, your awareness of preventing accidents caused by water can go a long way outside the home.
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Find out whether there are pools or water spas, where the retaining ponds or creeks that may attract children are. Make neighbours who have pools aware that you have a young child and ask them to keep their gates locked. I have been asked to investigate the water potential of a potato. During my investigation I will not actually be able to measure a value for, as it is a pressure value kPa.
Osmosis is a special form of diffusion involving only water molecules. It is defined as "The passage of water from a region of high water potential to a region of low water potential through a partially permeable membrane" Definition of Water Potential.
Water Safety Free Essays
The potential for water to move Results 1. Air, water , and soil pollution is a serious complication, which affects everyone in the world. Some of the main causes of pollution is the lack of laws to new industries as well as a poorly educated society. Due to environmental pollution, the society has put pressure on the government to create and carry out diverse policies to the control of environmental pollutants.